Women-Friendly City, Evaluating the realization of indicators from theory to
practice (Case study: two regions of Tehran)
Shiva Noori, Negin Armioun

Abstract
Urban spaces belong to all the citizens. In order to reach citizenship justice, these spaces
must be able to provide safe, secure, sustainable and interesting environments for all
citizens in order to benefit all the social groups regardless of their age, ethnicity, gender,
etc. of the facilities and spaces of the city and to let them participate in urban life. Although
women are one of the main groups in these urban spaces, they experience more limitations
in using urban spaces just because of their femininity. Therefore, these days urban planning
pays attention to gender aspects and challenges all the conventional planning ideas and
proceedings by introducing concepts such as women-friendly cities, gender equality and
diversity. The goal of this research is to discuss the indicators of women-friendly cities first,
and then evaluate and compare to what extent these criteria have been successfully
realized in regions 3 and 12 in Tehran (two regions with different socio-economic structure)
and finally present some planning solutions to approach social justice in gender aspects of
urban spaces. This research is descriptive and qualitative. The data collection methods at
part of research are library studies and a compilation of interviews with experts, library
studies and surveys in those regions in the second part. According to results it seems that
despite numerous researches conducted on this subject during recent years, there is still a
long way to reach the minimum standards and also a significant discrepancy among women
who have different social backgrounds in practice. Few proceedings which have been done
in women-friendly infrastructures is only limited to physical aspects (such as public
transportation, parks and playgrounds, facilities related to child care, etc.) and in terms of
spatial distribution, there is also inadequacy and imbalance. There is also a lack of safety
and security for women in urban areas. According to studies reported in this article, the
most obvious problem is the lack of dramatic change in power relations in city and for this
issue, empowerment programs for women and their participation in development and
decision-making processes are deemed crucial to achieve social justice, not only between
men and women but also among women considering the diversity of this group in urban
spaces and the realization of a women-friendly city.
Key words: Women, Women-friendly city, Urban spaces, Social justice, Tehran, City
planning